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Using Flash Loans

Flash loans are an integral feature of SFPY. This allows pool contracts to generate revenue for liquidity providers by being a source of unrestrcited capital. This is done by pool contracts sending borrowed tokens to the recipient optimistically without requiring any collateral. This is slightly atypical, as one might expect a pool to ensure it's secure before lending tokens out in case the borrower defaults. But because Ethereum transactions are atomic, we can roll back the entire borrow if it turns out that the contract hasn't received enough tokens to make itself whole by the end of the transaction.

To see how this all works, let's start by examining the interface of the borrow function:

function borrow(uint256 amount, address token, address to, bytes calldata data);

For the sake of example, let's assume that we're dealing with a DAI pool, where DAI is token. amount specifies the amount of DAI that the msg.sender wants the pool to send to the to address. At this point you may be wondering how the contract receives tokens. For a typical payment, it's actually the responsibility of msg.sender to ensure that enough DAI has already been sent to the pool before mint is called (in the context of paying, this is all handled neatly by a router contract). But when executing a flash loan, tokens do not need to be sent to the contract before calling borrow. Instead, they must be sent from within a callback function that the pool triggers on the to address.

Triggering a Flash Loan#

To execute a flash loan, callers must identify the pool from which they want to borrow the underlying token and call the borrow method on the pool.

function borrow(address sender, uint256 amount, address token, bytes calldata data);

Pools call borrow with the sender argument set to the msg.sender of the borrow. amount is simply amount and token is the address of the underlying token.

There are several conditions that should be checked in all uniswapV2Call functions:

function borrow(address sender, uint256 amount, address token, bytes calldata data) {
address token = ISfpyPool(msg.sender).token(); // fetch the address of token
assert(msg.sender == ISfpyFactory(factory).getPool(token)); // ensure that msg.sender is a pool
// rest of the function goes here!

The first 2 lines simply fetch the token address from the pool, and the 3rd ensures that the msg.sender is an actual SFPY pool address.


At the end of borrow, contracts must return enough tokens to the pair to make it whole. Specifically, this means that the amount of the pool reserves after the swap, must be greater than before.

Amount to return#

When returning the token for repayment back to the pool, you can calculate the minimum amount to send back using the following logic:

DAIReservePre - DAIWithdrawn + (DAIReturned) >= DAIReservePre

It may be more intuitive to rewrite this formula in terms of a "fee" levied on the withdrawn amount. If we rearrange, the formula looks like:

DAIReturned - DAIWithdrawn >= 0

In particular the fee levid to execute a flash loan is 0.1% so the formula above becomes

DAIReturned - (DAIWithdrawn * 1.01) >= 0


A fully functional example of flash swaps is available: ExampleFlashLoan.sol.


import '@sfpy/core/contracts/interfaces/ISfpyBorrower.sol';
pragma solidity >=0.8.0;
interface ISfpyBorrower {
function borrow(address sender, uint256 amount, address token, bytes calldata data) external;